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Controversy still surrounds the question of whether 'intelligence' is best conceived of as a unitary entity (Spearman) or as a multi-faceted collection of abilities. Still "horses for courses" as the saying goes. Perhaps Spearman's dogmatic determination in promoting and maintaining his position lay in his 15 years of military service (as a British army officer) in India. Like many successful professionals, famous psychometricians appear to come from extraordinarily disparate backgrounds
The British Psychologist, Charles Edward Spearman, was born September 10, 1863 and died September 7 1945. He spent a quarter of his long life of 82 years in the British Army, and as a result didn’t complete his Ph.D. until he was 41 years of age. His doctoral study was directed by Wilhelm Wundt, who initiated the first laboratory in experimental psychology in Leipzig, Germany. But Spearman was also strongly influenced by the work of Francis Galton, who had made a strong case for the importance of intelligence testing. Two well-known psychologists who studied under Spearman were Raymond Cattell and David Wechsler, and five others who were influenced by him were Anne Anastasi, J. P. Guilford, Philip Vernon, Cyril Burt, and Arthur Jensen. Charles Spearman occupied chaired professorships at University College London from 1907 to 1931, initially assuming a position in Experimental Psychology and then moving to the area of Philosophy of Mind and Logic.
Spearman was born in London in 1863, the second son of Alexander Young and Louisa Ann Caroline Amelia (Mainwaring) Spearman. Educated at Leamington College, Spearman joined the army in 1883 and served as a much-decorated infantry officer in Burma and India. However his early interest in philosophy led him to his desire to study psychology and, in 1897, he resigned from the army as a captain and continued his education.
For the next ten years, Spearman studied experimental psychology in Germany. After earning his Ph.D. with Wilhelm Wundt at the University of Leipzig in 1906, he worked with Oswald Külpe at the University of Würzburg and with Georg Elias Müller at the University of Göttingen
Born in London 1863. Charles Spearman was educated in Leamington College before joining the army. He moved through the ranks and became a much decorated officer serving in Burma and India. While in the military he became interested in philosophy, it was this interest that prompted his retirement from the army and promoted his study of psychology.
At the age of 38 Spearman moved to Germany and studied experimental psychology at the University of Leipzig. He earned his Ph.D. in 1906 and then moved on to the University of Würzburg and at then to the University of Göttingen.